The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a fifth-generation, single-seat, twin-engine, all-weather stealth tactical fighter aircraftdeveloped for the United States Air Force (USAF). The result of the USAF’s Advanced Tactical Fighter program, the aircraft was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but also has ground attack, electronic warfare, and signal intelligencecapabilities. The prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, built most of the F-22’s airframe and weapons systems and did its final assembly, while Boeing provided the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems.
The aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 before it formally entered service in December 2005 as the F-22A. After a protracted development and despite operational issues, the USAF considers the F-22 critical to its tactical air power, and says that the aircraft is unmatched by any known or projected fighter. The Raptor’s combination of stealth, aerodynamic performance, and situational awareness gives the aircraft unprecedented air combat capabilities.
The high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air missions due to delays in Russian and Chinese fighter programs, a ban on exports, and development of the more versatile F-35 led to the end of F-22 production. A final procurement tally of 187 operational production aircraft was established in 2009 and the last F-22 was delivered to the USAF in 2012.
|Role||Stealth air superiority fighter|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||Lockheed Martin Aeronautics
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
|First flight||7 September 1997|
|Introduction||15 December 2005|
|Primary user||United States Air Force|
|Number built||195 (8 test and 187 operational aircraft)|
|Program cost||US$66.7 billion as of 2011|
US$150 million (flyaway cost for FY2009)
|Developed from||Lockheed YF-22|
|Developed into||Lockheed Martin X-44 MANTA
Lockheed Martin FB-22
- The U.S. Air Force is the only operator of the F-22. It ordered 8 test and 187 operational production aircraft. In November 2012, it had 184 production aircraft in inventory.
- 57th Wing – Nellis AFB, Nevada
- 325th Fighter Wing – Tyndall AFB, Florida
- 192d Fighter Wing (Associate) – Langley AFB, Virginia
- 325th Fighter Wing Associate Unit (also known as Florida Air National Guard Headquarters Detachment 1) – Tyndall AFB, Florida
- Associate ANG unit to 325th Fighter Wing (Air Combat Command)
- 44th Fighter Group (Associate) – Tyndall AFB, Florida
- 477th Fighter Group (Associate) – Elmendorf AFB, Alaska
- Crew: 1
- Length: 62 ft 1 in (18.92 m)
- Wingspan: 44 ft 6 in (13.56 m)
- Height: 16 ft 8 in (5.08 m)
- Wing area: 840 ft² (78.04 m²)
- Airfoil: NACA 64A?05.92 root, NACA 64A?04.29 tip
- Empty weight: 43,340 lb (19,700 kg)
- Loaded weight: 64,840 lb (29,410 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 83,500 lb (38,000 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 pitch thrust vectoring turbofans
- Dry thrust: 26,000 lb (116 kN) each
- Thrust with afterburner: >35,000 lb (>156 kN) each
- Fuel capacity: 18,000 lb (8,200 kg) internally, or 26,000 lb (12,000 kg) with two external fuel tanks
- Maximum speed:
- Range: >1,600 nmi (1,840 mi, 2,960 km) with 2 external fuel tanks
- Combat radius: 460 nmi (with 100 nmi in supercruise clean) (529 mi, 852 km)
- Ferry range: 1,740 nmi (2,000 mi, 3,220 km)
- Service ceiling: >65,000 ft (20,000 m)
- Wing loading: 77.2 lb/ft² (377 kg/m²)
- Thrust/weight: 1.08
- Maximum design g-load: +9.0/−3.0 g
- Guns: 1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61A2 Vulcan 6-barrel rotary cannon in right wing root, 480 rounds
- Air to air mission loadout:
- Air to ground mission loadout:
- Hardpoints: 4× under-wing pylon stations can be fitted to carry 600 U.S. gallon drop tanks or weapons, each with a capacity of 5,000 lb (2,270 kg).
- AN/APG-77 radar or AN/APG-77v1: 125–150 miles (201–241 km) against 1 m2 (11 sq ft) targets (estimated range) for AN/APG-77 and up to 400 km against 1 m2 (11 sq ft) targets (estimated range) for AN/APG-77v1 with GaAs modules, while using a more narrow beam
- AN/AAR-56 Missile Launch Detector (MLD)
- AN/ALR-94 radar warning receiver (RWR): 250 nmi (463 km) or more detection range
- MJU-39/40 flares for protection against IR missiles
- YF-22A – pre-production technology demonstrator for ATF demonstration/validation phase; two were built.
- F-22A – single-seat production version, was designated F/A-22A in early 2000s.
- F-22B – planned two-seat variant, but was canceled in 1996 to save development costs.
- Naval F-22 variant – a carrier-borne variant of the F-22 with variable-sweep wings for the U.S. Navy‘s Navy Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF) program to replace the F-14 Tomcat. Program was canceled in 1993. Former SoAF Donald Rice has called the possibility of the naval variant the deciding factor for his choice of the YF-22 over the YF-23.
The FB-22 was a proposed medium-range bomber for the USAF. The FB-22 was projected to carry up to 30 Small Diameter Bombs to about twice the range of the F-22A, while maintaining the F-22’s stealth and supersonic speed. However, the FB-22 in its planned form appears to have been canceled with the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review and subsequent developments, in lieu of a larger subsonic bomber with a much greater range.
The X-44 MANTA, or multi-axis, no-tail aircraft, was a planned experimental aircraft based on the F-22 with enhanced thrust vectoring controls and no aerodynamic surface backup. The aircraft was to be solely controlled by thrust vectoring, without featuring any rudders, ailerons, or elevators. Funding for this program was halted in 2000.