Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor

Two F-22As in close trail formation

Two F-22As in close trail formation

The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a fifth-generation, single-seat, twin-engine, all-weather stealth tactical fighter aircraftdeveloped for the United States Air Force (USAF). The result of the USAF’s Advanced Tactical Fighter program, the aircraft was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but also has ground attack, electronic warfare, and signal intelligencecapabilities. The prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, built most of the F-22’s airframe and weapons systems and did its final assembly, while Boeing provided the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems.

The aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 before it formally entered service in December 2005 as the F-22A. After a protracted development and despite operational issues, the USAF considers the F-22 critical to its tactical air power, and says that the aircraft is unmatched by any known or projected fighter. The Raptor’s combination of stealth, aerodynamic performance, and situational awareness gives the aircraft unprecedented air combat capabilities.

The high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air missions due to delays in Russian and Chinese fighter programs, a ban on exports, and development of the more versatile F-35 led to the end of F-22 production. A final procurement tally of 187 operational production aircraft was established in 2009 and the last F-22 was delivered to the USAF in 2012.

Role Stealth air superiority fighter
National origin United States
Manufacturer Lockheed Martin Aeronautics
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
First flight 7 September 1997
Introduction 15 December 2005
Status In service
Primary user United States Air Force
Produced F-22: 1996–2011
Number built 195 (8 test and 187 operational aircraft)
Program cost US$66.7 billion as of 2011
Unit cost
US$150 million (flyaway cost for FY2009)
Developed from Lockheed YF-22
Developed into Lockheed Martin X-44 MANTA
Lockheed Martin FB-22

Operators


 United States
The U.S. Air Force is the only operator of the F-22. It ordered 8 test and 187 operational production aircraft. In November 2012, it had 184 production aircraft in inventory.

Air Combat Command

27th Fighter Squadron – The first combat F-22 squadron. Began conversion in December 2005.
94th Fighter Squadron
422d Test and Evaluation Squadron (Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada)[178]
433d Weapons Squadron
43d Fighter Squadron – First squadron to operate the F-22 and continues to serve as the Formal Training Unit.
95th Fighter Squadron

Air Force Materiel Command

411th Flight Test Squadron

Pacific Air Forces

90th Fighter Squadron
525th Fighter Squadron
19th Fighter Squadron – Active Associate squadron to the 199th Fighter Squadron (Hawaii Air National Guard).

Air National Guard

149th Fighter Squadron
199th Fighter Squadron
Associate ANG unit to 325th Fighter Wing (Air Combat Command)

Air Force Reserve Command

301st Fighter Squadron
302d Fighter Squadron

Specifications (F-22A)


General characteristics

Orthographically projected diagram of the F-22A

Orthographically projected diagram of the F-22A

F-22's all-moving horizontal stabilizers

F-22’s all-moving horizontal stabilizers

Performance

USAF poster of key F-22 features and armament

USAF poster of key F-22 features and armament

Armament

F-22 underside doors open

F-22 underside doors open

Avionics

  • AN/APG-77 radar or AN/APG-77v1: 125–150 miles (201–241 km) against 1 m2 (11 sq ft) targets (estimated range) for AN/APG-77 and up to 400 km against 1 m2 (11 sq ft) targets (estimated range) for AN/APG-77v1 with GaAs modules, while using a more narrow beam[272][273][274]
  • AN/AAR-56 Missile Launch Detector (MLD)
  • AN/ALR-94 radar warning receiver (RWR): 250 nmi (463 km) or more detection range
  • MJU-39/40 flares for protection against IR missiles

Variants


  • YF-22A – pre-production technology demonstrator for ATF demonstration/validation phase; two were built.
  • F-22A – single-seat production version, was designated F/A-22A in early 2000s.
  • F-22B – planned two-seat variant, but was canceled in 1996 to save development costs.
  • Naval F-22 variant – a carrier-borne variant of the F-22 with variable-sweep wings for the U.S. Navy‘s Navy Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF) program to replace the F-14 Tomcat. Program was canceled in 1993. Former SoAF Donald Rice has called the possibility of the naval variant the deciding factor for his choice of the YF-22 over the YF-23.

Derivatives

The FB-22 was a proposed medium-range bomber for the USAF. The FB-22 was projected to carry up to 30 Small Diameter Bombs to about twice the range of the F-22A, while maintaining the F-22’s stealth and supersonic speed. However, the FB-22 in its planned form appears to have been canceled with the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review and subsequent developments, in lieu of a larger subsonic bomber with a much greater range.

The X-44 MANTA, or multi-axis, no-tail aircraft, was a planned experimental aircraft based on the F-22 with enhanced thrust vectoring controls and no aerodynamic surface backup. The aircraft was to be solely controlled by thrust vectoring, without featuring any rudders, ailerons, or elevators. Funding for this program was halted in 2000.

See also